Demeter, in Greek and Roman Mythology is the Greek Goddess of Agriculture and is a goddess of Olympus. She was often compared to the Primordial Titan Gaia. Check out its History, Representation and Myth below.


     Demeter (Greek: Δημήτηρ, transl .: Dēmétēr) or Demetra (Greek: Δήμητρα, transl .: Démētra), in Greek mythology, is the goddess of harvest and agriculture, an Olympian, daughter of Cronos and Reia. She is also the goddess of cultivated land and the seasons. It is a propitiator of wheat, a symbol of civilization. As a goddess of agriculture, she made several long trips with Dionysus, teaching men to care for the land and plantations.

     In Rome, where Ceres was called, its festival was called Cereália, being celebrated in the spring. His first daughter was Persephone, who had with Zeus. Persephone was the mother's greatest joy! When Hades kidnapped her, Demeter stopped the plants from growing all over the world, and said that the plants would only grow again when their beloved daughter returned. After a long time, Hades and Demeter made a deal ... Persephone would stay with mother 3/4 of the year and stay with Hades 1/4 of the year. Demeter is described as "the blonde Demeter" in Homer's "Iliad". His sons are: Persephone, Despina, Arion, Pluto and Philomelo.


     With Zeus, her brother, she had a daughter, Persephone ("the one with the white arms"). There was a pair of twins named Despina ("the goddess of winter shadows") and Arion, with his brother Poseidon. He abandoned the nameless girl at birth to seek Persephone when he was abducted. Despina, who represents winter, is the opposite of her sister, Persephone, who represents spring, and her mother Demeter, goddess of agriculture. The son named Arion was a horse with blue manes, who had the power to speak and see the future. It was the fastest horse of all time and bravely helped many heroes in their conquests.

     Demeter is also one of the goddesses who had children with mortals. With the Cretan hero Iasião, he had two twin sons, Pluto and Filomelo, and a third son, Coribas. A fragment of Hesiod's Catalog of Women suggests that Demeter had another mortal lover, Etion, who was struck by a lightning bolt from Zeus. Some scholars infer that Iásio and Etião are the same person.


     The best-known story of the Demeter Goddess is also starring her daughter Persephone and the underworld god Hades, known as the lord of the dead. According to the myth, one day the beautiful Persephone was picking flowers when she was spotted by Hades.

     Influenced by Cupid's arrow, Hades falls deeply in love with her and decides to kidnap her to take him into the underworld. There, he offers a pomegranate (legend has it that anyone who eats a fruit from the depths cannot return to the world) and marries her.

     Desperate for her daughter's disappearance, Demeter plunged into a sadness so intense that it made the land infertile again, the trees gave no more fruit and the herbs in the field dried up. In this way, the world was covered by endless winter, where cold and misery killed entire populations.

     The suffering on earth came to an end only when the Goddess Demeter finally discovered the whereabouts of her beloved Persephone. However, Hades did not give up his great love easily. In fact, Demeter and the lord of the dead had to make a deal so that the goddess could have her daughter in her arms again.


     The Eleusinian Mysteries, celebrated in the cult of the goddess in Greece, interpret this legend as a continuous symbol of death and resurrection. Demeter can be represented:

  • sitting, with torches or a snake. Its attributes are the ear and the narcissus, its bird is the crane.
  • with a scythe in one hand and a handful of ears and poppies in the other, with a crown with those same elements on their heads.

     At the end of his journey, Io married Telegono, king of Egypt. and made a statue to Demeter, which the Egyptians called Isis, and they also started to call Io of Isis.


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