ALL FOR GREEK UNDERWORLD

01/05/2020

     Greek Underworld, in Greek Mythology, is the land of the dead, the place where people's souls would go after death. In that place souls would pass a judgment, where their destiny would be decided.

UNDERWORLD IN GREEK

     Underworld in Greek, or lower world in Greek mythology, is the land of the dead, the place where people's souls would go after death. In that place souls would pass a judgment, where their destiny would be decided. According to the judgment, the souls could be sent to three very different regions: Tartarus, the Champs Elysées or the Campo de Asfódelos. At the time of death, the soul was separated from the body, taking the form of the person and was transported to Hades' entrance. Hades itself was described as being a place at the outer limits of the ocean or in the depths or ends of the earth. It was considered the dark counterpart of the brightness of Mount Olympus and was the realm of the dead, which corresponded to the realm of the gods. Hades was a kingdom invisible to the living and was created exclusively for the dead.

CHARACTERISTICS

  • At the door of the underworld was a demonic dog that guarded the entrance to the kingdom of Hades. His name was Cerberus, who in turn was colossal and devoured any mortal who passed by.
  • The great Tartar pit, originally an exclusive prison for the Titans, ancient gods, who later became the dungeon where cursed souls were imprisoned;
  • The land of the dead, governed by the god Hades, known both by the name of the god himself and by the house or domain of Hades (Aidaou domes), Erebo, the Fields of Asfódelos, Styx and Aqueronte;
  • The "islands of the Blessed One" or Fortunate islands, ruled by Cronos (according to Píndaro - other reports diverge), where great heroes and myths resided after their deaths;
  • The Champs Elysées, ruled by Radamanto, where the souls of virtuous men and those initiated in the ancient mysteries lived.
     The five rivers of Hades were Aqueronte (the river of pain), Cocyte (lament), Flegetonte (fire), Lete (forgetfulness) and Styg (invulnerability), which formed the border between the upper and lower worlds. underworld has varied considerably over time.

THE ORIGIN OF THE KINGDOM OF HADES

     The Kingdom of Hades would have been formed after the victory of the so-called divine third generation - formed by Zeus and the other descendants of Cronos - over the titans. After the victory, the Universe was divided into three parts: Heaven (the ether and the clouds) was reserved for Zeus; the Sea came under the control of Poseidon; and the gigantic empire located "within the misty darkness" of the bowels of the Earth under the command of Hades. His palace was located in the middle of Tartarus and is commonly associated with the figure of "hell". In the battle against the Titans, Hades received a helmet from the Cyclops that made him invisible, also giving rise to Hades' etymological variation as "invisible". Due to this fact, Hades' name was rarely pronounced, and the Greeks were afraid of arousing their anger. Hades is portrayed as "violent and powerful" and the Greeks did not build any temple or altar in his honor. Hades feared only Poseidon, who could shake the earth and make the soil open, revealing "his horrifying abode, that hated place, full of mold and rot".
     From his kingdom, Hades rules sovereign, with shadows as subjects, "as numerous as the waves of the sea", and everything that death reaps on earth, falls under his kingdom, increasing his wealth. According to what is evident even in other passages of Homer's work, when it comes to the kingdom of Hades, there is a clear distinction between soul and body. Hades would be the place where the dead would roam and the figure of the soul would detach itself from the individual. Still according to Homer, the palace of Hades would not be in the depths, but in the ends of the world, in the end of the ocean, in the city of the Cimmerians, "(...) that are always surrounded by clouds and thick mists; it was never given the rays of the shining sun reach them (...) Noxious night extends without pause over these measly ".

HADES DESCRIPTIONS

     The ways of characterizing Hades varied between Hellenic cities and cultures. One of the possible descriptions portrayed the realm of the dead as the subterranean realm where the soul or specter (psykhé) of those who died lived. Among the different descriptions of Hades, one of the best known and commented on is the version presented by Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey. According to Teodoro Rennó Assunção, in his analysis of Canto XI da Odisseia, psykhé was less soul than shadow. The dead remained in a state of desolation and lamentation, with Hades "a kingdom whose ontological infrastructure resists any attempt at valorization". In the corner in question, there is a precise description of Hades: the realm of the dead can only be accessed with the consent of the gods who guard it, and the mythological topology elaborated by Homer places it beyond the country of the Cimmerians, in an extremely remote region, where the sun does not shine. Other mentions and descriptions of Hades can be read throughout the epic in songs V, XII, XIII and XIV.

GREEK UNDERWORLD - ELISIOS FIELDS

     The Elisios Field was a place of mild temperature, with a gentle breeze and constant joy, where good souls were destined for. The myth of the Champs Elysées probably gained support around the 8th century BC with Homer's Odyssey. Campos Elísios or Isle of the Blessed, as we can find writings of other philosophers and intellectuals of Ancient Greece, is described as a joyful, calm and full of pleasures place, which was primarily reserved for Greek heroes, in order to escape from the darkness. doHades. But later on, the idea that the place was the destination for the souls of good people took shape and took root in Greek culture. This place is described as the Greek paradise, a space of mild temperatures, flat relief and difficult identification, located at the ends of the planet Earth.

GREEK UNDERWORLD - EREBUS

     The field of Asphodelos (also called Erebus) is described as a flat monotone full of dark trees. To these camps were sent souls who in their lifetime had no significant glory or merit, but neither did they provide barbarism or commit criminal acts. In the Campo de Asfódelos these souls would not receive punishments and would also receive no gratifications, they would just be saddened by the sadness of endlessly strolling through the dark plain of these fields. The Asfódelos Field also served as a neutral territory, where souls would wait until they were judged. The place is basically limbo, where your soul is trapped for eternity, wandering without memories and without any direction.

GREEK UNDERWORLD: TARTARUS

     Tartarus was the place where the souls of unjust and merciless people were sent. Tartarus was described by Plato, in his work Gorgias, as the place where souls received judgment and also as the place of divine punishment for evil souls. Socrates also describes Tartarus as a place where merciless souls were destined after death. Tartarus was surrounded by great walls and cut by a great lava flow called Flegetonte, suffering there the giants defeated in the war against Zeus, the Danaides, who killed their spouses, the Siphysus, who had deceived death and the Tantalus, who had committed sacrilege , and so many other criminals.

CARONTE AND ITS BOAT

     When he arrived at Hades, the dead man should offer the oobolo to the boatman Charon. Those who did not have the coin would wander sadly on the banks of the River Estige. That done, Caronteguia the boat until the palace of Hades, passing for five main rivers, Aqueronte (river of the pains and afflictions); Cocyte (river of groans and lamentations); Estige (the cold river of horrors, in which the gods took their oaths, thus considered the river of hate); FlegetonteouPiriflegetonte (river of inextinguishable flames); and, finally, Lete (river of forgetfulness, in which souls drank from its waters, to return to Earth). These rivers connected the various planes of the Hades. The palace of Hadesera was guarded by Cerberus, a large multi-headed dog that prevented souls from escaping and prevented intruders. When souls arrived, they disembarked and presented themselves to the great court to be judged.

THE THREE JUDGES OF THE LOWER WORLD

     The grand court was chaired by three judges: Éaco, RadamantoeMinos. The judgment of souls was attended by Hades himself and, depending on the sentence, they would proceed to the Camp of Asphodelos, the Champs Elysées or Tartarus. The sentences proposed by Hades were irrevocable and even Zeus could not interfere with his decision. Those who had committed crimes, especially against the gods, were directly sent to Tartarus, where they would serve their sentences. We also know that Éaco was the one who judged European souls, while Radamanto judged Asian souls, and Minos finally decided which region of hell the souls would go to. It has been reported that those who were sent to Tartarus received some type of sacrifice that should be made for the rest of their lives. A well-known example is that of Sifiso, who was ordered to roll a huge rock to the top of a high mountain and every time he got there the rock would roll down again, having to repeat the process tirelessly.

KINGDOM OF HADES GOD OF WAR 3

     Hades was the Greek god of the Underworld. He is surpassed in eminence only by his brothers, Zeus and Poseidon. He is the eldest son of the Titans Cronos and Rhea. He is also a major antagonist in God of War III. Hades was the ancient Greek god of the Underworld and the brother of Zeus, but his name was shared with the abode of the dead. In Greek mythology, Hades was the first son and fourth son of Kronos and Rhea. According to the myth, he, together with his younger brothers, Zeus and Poseidon defeated the Titans in battle and took over the government of the cosmos; Governing the Underworld, Sky and Sea, respectively; The solid land, the long province of Gaia, was available to all three concurrently. As the ruler of the Underworld and everything that resides within it, Hades is both the oldest of his brothers and the second most powerful Olympic God in history alongside his brothers Poseidon and Zeus who are both equal (if not stronger) in terms of global power.

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